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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 32-39

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications needing shunt revision in children: A review of 5 years of experience with 48 revisions

Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College and Associated, Kamla Nehru and Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Rajendra K Ghritlaharey
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College and Associated, Kamla Nehru and Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh - 462 001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0189-6725.93300

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Background: The aim of this study was to review the management of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt complications in children. Patients and Methods: During the last 5 years (January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010), 236 VP shunt operations were performed in children under 12 years of age; of these, 40 (16.94%) developed shunt complications and those who underwent VP shunt revisions were studied. Results: This prospective study included 40 (28 boys and 12 girls) children and required 48 shunt revisions. Complications following VP shunts that required shunt revisions were peritoneal catheter/peritoneal end malfunction (18), shunt/shunt tract infections (7), extrusion of peritoneal catheter through anus (5), ventricular catheter malfunction (4), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak from abdominal wound (4), shunt system failure (2), ventricular end/shunt displacement (2), CSF pseudocysts peritoneal cavity (2), extrusion of peritoneal catheter from neck, chest, abdominal scar and through umbilicus, one each. Four-fifth of these shunt complications occurred within 6 months of previous surgery. Surgical procedures done during shunt revisions in order of frequency were revision of peritoneal part of shunt (27, 56.25%), revision of entire shunt system (6, 12.5%), extra ventricular drainage and delayed re-shunt (5, 10.41%), shunt removal and delayed re-shunt (5, 10.41%), opposite side shunting (2, 4.16%), cysts excision and revision of peritoneal catheter (2, 4.16%) and revision of ventricular catheter (1, 2.08%). The mortalities following VP shunt operations were 44 (18.64%) and following shunt revisions were 4 (10%). Conclusions: VP shunt done for hydrocephalus in children is not only prone for complications and need for revision surgery but also associated with considerable mortality.

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