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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 26-31

Granulomatous appendicitis in children: A single institutional experience

Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, King Fahad Hospital of the University, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Kamalesh Pal
Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, King Fahad Hospital of the University, P. O. Box 40129, Al Khobar 31952
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0189-6725.129207

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Background: Granulomatous appendicitis (GA) is a rare entity, mostly mentioned in adults. There have been anecdotal case reports describing GA in the paediatric population. This study was aimed at reviewing the cases of appendectomies to assess the incidence and characteristics of GA in children in a tertiary care University hospital. Materials and Methods: Records of children (<13 years age) with biopsy proven granulomatous lesions in the appendectomy specimen, treated during 1991-2011, were analysed. Data regarding demography, clinical presentation, radiological findings, intra-operative finding, histology, diagnosis and follow-up were recorded and descriptively analysed. Results: Twelve out of 1150 (1.04%) appendectomies were biopsy proven GA. Male to female ratio was 8:4. Four had Yersinia enterocolitis, two had Crohn's disease (CD; one isolated Crohn's Appendicitis, one Ileo-cecal Crohn' with appendicitis) and five were idiopathic. Remaining one case, initially diagnosed as idiopathic GA, developed full blown ileo-cecal CD at 2 nd month post-operative. Age ranged between 4 and 11 years with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affecting older children and Yersinia, seen in younger children. Majority (10/12) remained asymptomatic at a maximum of 5 years of follow-up. Two patients had recurrent symptoms; one with sub-acute obstruction (2 years follow-up) and another with flaring of Crohn's ileitis (2 months follow-up). Conclusions: GA in children is a rare entity, with incidence of 1.04% and male preponderance in our series. Idiopathic causes were the most common followed by Yersinia enterocolitis and CD. Although majority remained asymptomatic, IBD should be ruled out in case of recurrence of pain or alteration of bowel habit. Therefore, a long-term follow-up (at least for 5 years) of idiopathic GA is suggested in children.

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