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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 62-66

Haematogenous osteoarticular infections in paediatric sickle cell trait patients: A reality in a tertiary centre in West Africa

Department of Pediatric Surgery, CHU Yopougon, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jean Baptiste Yaokreh
Department of Mother and Children, University Felix Houphouët Boigny, 21 BP 2954, Abidjan 21
Côte d'Ivoire
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ajps.AJPS_114_20

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Background: Sickle cell trait (SCT) affects at least 5.2% of the world population, and it is considered asymptomatic by medical practitioners. There is a paucity of data regarding SCT paediatric patients and haematogenous osteoarticular infections (HOAIs). In our practice, some children with SCT presented HOAIs. This study aims to describe the pattern of HOAIs in children with SCT admitted in our unit. Materials and Methods: A single-centre retrospective study of medical records of SCT paediatric patients treated for HOAIs between January 2012 and June 2019 was performed. The data extracted were epidemiologic (gender, age at diagnosis, history of haemoglobinopathy and ethnic group), diagnostic (time to diagnosis, type of infection and fraction of haemoglobin S [HbS] at standard electrophoresis of Hb), germs and complications. Results: Among 149 patients with haemoglobinopathy treated for HOAIs, 52 have SCT. The prevalence of SCT patients was 34.9%. Thirty-nine (n = 39) records were retained for the study. The average age at diagnosis was 7.18 ± 4.59 years (7 months–15 years). The Malinké ethnic group was found in 22 (56.4%) cases. The mean HbS fraction was 37.2% ± 4.3% (30%–46%). Septic arthritis and osteoarthritis involved the hip in 11 cases, the shoulder in 4 and the knee in 2. Osteomyelitis was acute in 5 cases (11.1%) and chronic in 16 (35.5%). None of the patients has multifocal involvements. Bacterial identification was positive in 17 cases (37.8%). Staphylococcus aureus was involved in 9 cases (52.9%), and in one case, it was Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This patient has abscess of the psoas. No patient was infected by human immunodeficiency virus. The sequelae were joint destruction (n = 2), epiphysiodesis (n = 5) and retractile scars (n = 2). Conclusion: Relatively infrequent in our daily practice, SCT patients present with HOAIs. These infections had characteristics that are not very different from the series of the literature.

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